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Gold Karat & Color

The softness and malleability of gold makes it ideal for fine metalwork and jewelry making, but pure gold is too soft to be a durable pieces of ornament. To make jewelry harder and more resistant to scratching and bending, jewelers use gold alloys, mixtures of gold and harder metals. The most common alloys of gold are yellow gold (gold+copper+silver) and white gold (gold+palladium).

Karat defined

The purity of gold is measured in karats and is now also measured in terms of fineness (i.e. European Marking).

Pure gold is 24 karats or 999 fineness. The process of understanding what exactly a karat becomes rather simple when gold is thought of as an alloy (a mixture of various metals) where the karats define the percent of pure gold in the alloy. Therefore, you may determine the percentage of pure gold in any gold piece by dividing the karat by 24 (e.g. 18K gold: 18/24=0.750=75% pure gold).

  Karat Parts Gold to Alloy Percent Pure Gold Fineness - European Marking  
  10K 10/24 41.67% 417  
  14K 14/24 58.33% 583  
  18K 18/24 75.00% 750  
  22K 22/24 91.67% 916  
  24K 24/24 99.99% 999  

Nothing less than 10-karat gold can be legally marked or sold as gold jewelry in the United States. The legal requirements for minimum gold content vary widely country-by-country (e.g. 9 Karat is popular in Britain, while in France, Italy and Switzerland, 18k is the lowest permissible standard to be called gold).

The colors of gold

Gold alloys when mixed in proper proportions, aside from strengthening gold for jewelry can also affect its color. The following table demonstrates the most common colors of gold alloys and the metals used in making them:

  Color of Gold Additional Metals Used  
  Yellow gold Copper, Silver  
  White gold Palladium  
  Green gold Copper, Silver  
  Rose gold Copper, Silver  



Diamond, is the hardest mineral on earth and with its exceptional lustre and brilliant fire, it is the highest priced of all gems. Its name derives from the Greek word adamas, meaning invincible.Pure colourless diamond is the most popular, but it also comes in yellow, brown, green, blue, pink, red , grey and black, depending on the impurities present. It is mainly found in South Africa, Angola, Zaire, Ghana, Guinea, Tanzania, Namibia, Australia, Brazil, Botswana and Russia. They are graded by the four Cs : Color, Cut, Clarity and Carat. A diamond is usually weighed in Carat or ct.

1Carat = 200 Milligram
1Milligram = 0.005 Carat

It is said that diamond brings longevity, particularly to relationships, balance, clarity and abundance. It can amplify one's thoughts, whether they be strengths, or weaknesses. It gives one who wears or carries it courage and hope. A diamond encourages self-confidence and desire for independence while at the same time counteracting jealousy.

Mineral Crystal Structure Hardness
Carbon Cubic 10

A ruby is a pink to blood-red colored gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum. The red color is caused mainly by the presence of the element chromium. Its name comes from ruber, Latin for red. They are second only to diamonds in terms of hardness. It is mainly found in Burma, Thailand, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, USA, Australia, Norway and Russia.

For thousands of years, Ruby was considered the stone of love, energy, passion, power, and a zest for life. Ruby brings love, confidence, loyalty, and courage. It instills stamina, vitality and strength. Ruby allows you to love Self and Spirit. A good stone of protection.

Mineral Crystal Structure Hardness
Corundum Trigonal 9


All gem quality corundum that is not red is called sapphire. The name is probably derived , through the Latin 'sapphirus' and Greek 'sapheiros'. These come in different shades of blue along with yellow, pink, green and colorless variety, depending on iron and titanium impurities. They are found in Australia, India, Burma, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Cambodia, Nigeria, Kenya, USA and Brazil.

Blue Sapphire - The Blue Sapphire is traditionally associated with purity and love. It assists you to stay on the spiritual path, releasing blockages and providing strength.

Yellow Sapphire - Yellow Sapphire attracts wealth and brings prosperity to the home. It stimulates the intellect and improves overall focus, enhancing wisdom.

Black Sapphire - The Black Sapphire provides protection and grounding. It helps you to achieve confidence in your own intuition.

Pink Sapphire - Pink Sapphire clears emotional blockages bringing peace and unconditional love.

White Sapphire - White Sapphire is extremely protective, removing all obstacles and helpfully encouraging the pursuit of one's life purpose. It provides focus and supports morality and justice.

Indigo Sapphire - The Indigo Sapphire enhances psychic awareness. It eliminates negative energies from the aura.

Green Sapphire - Green Sapphire is known as the "stone of fidelity", stimulating the heart chakra and bringing loyalty and integrity. It improves internal and external vision and helps you to remember dreams.

Mineral Crystal Structure Hardness
Corundum Trigonal 9


Emerald is a variety of the mineral beryl. Emerald derives its beautiful green color from the presence of chromium and vanadium. Emeralds are rarely flawless and fairly brittle. It is common practice to oil emeralds to disguise these flaws and enhance the color. The Latin "smaragdus" appears to be referred to as emerald. Emeralds can be light or dark green , bright green or leaf green. The finest emeralds come from Columbia, but they are also found in Brazil, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Austria, India, Australia, Egypt, Pakistan and USA.

Emerald enhances psychic abilities, opens clairvoyance, and stimulates the use of greater mental capacity. It helps bring awareness of the unknown to conscious recognition, imparting reason and wisdom. Emerald assists in inciting activity and focus in one's actions. It strengthens the memory and imparts clarity of thought. It inspires a deep inner knowing, promoting truth and discernment.

Mineral Crystal Structure Hardness
Beryl Hexagonal 7.5


A palish blue, light blue-green or even light green shade of beryl is called aquamarine. In the 19th century the sea water green was the most preferred color , from where the name is derived but today the most valued color is rich sky blue. Most aquamarines come from brazil but they are also found in Russia, USA, India and Pakistan. Almost all aquamarines, like sapphires, are heat treated to enhance its color which is considered acceptable.

It is believed that Aquamarine improves sight, sharpens the mind, calms and clarifies emotions. Promotes self-expression. Soothes fears and increases sensitivity. Sharpens intuition and opens clairvoyance. Wonderful for meditation. Shields the aura and aligns the chakras.

Mineral Crystal Structure Hardness
Beryl Hexagonal 7.5


Tourmaline comes in a wide array of colors and an equally large range of varieties. The name is derived from the ancient Singhalese word "Thuramali" meaning 'mixed gem stones'. For eg. Rubellite is pink and red-toned, Indicolite is dark blue, Achroite is colorless , Schorl is black, Dravite is dark brown, watermelon is bi-color made of pink and green. Other very popular colors are green and yellow. Important tourmaline deposits are found in Brazil, USA, Russia, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Sri Lanka and Burma.

Watermelon - heals old emotional pains and brings emotional understanding.
Pink - promotes compassion, love and healing of emotional pain
Green - cleanses and detoxifies the spirit, brings prosperity.
Blue - helpful with verbal, speech, and throat problems. Mental peace and patience.
Black - strong protection from negative energies. Reduces fears, obsessions, neurosis, and panic with a calm rootedness.

Mineral Crystal Structure Hardness
Complex Borosilicate Trigonal 7.5

Crystalline quartz in shades of purple, lilac or mauve is called Amethyst. This is a variety of quartz colored by traces of manganese, titanium and iron..It is the most highly prized variety of quartz. The name amethyst comes from the Greek word "amethustos" which means Non-Intoxicated. Amethyst was considered to be a strong antidote against drunkenness, which is why wine goblets were often carved from it. Some of the largest deposits of amethyst are found in Brazil, Russia, Canada, USA, Uruguay, South Africa, Zambia,Namibia, India and Sri Lanka.

Amethyst increases vivid dreams, relieves depression, promotes calm, serenity, and spirituality. Helps with addiction and stress. It is a "stone of change, protection & enlightenment". Enhances spiritual awareness, meditation, visualization, serenity & composure. Attracts good luck & love, calms & transforms. Shifts energies to the higher frequencies of both the spiritual & ethereal levels.

Mineral Crystal Structure Hardness
Quartz Trigonal 7.0

Citrine is the yellow or golden yellow variety of quartz. The yellow coloration is due to the presence of iron. Natural citrine is usually a pale yellow color which is very rare. The name is derived from Latin citrina which means "yellow".The color range of citrine is very similar to Topaz which has led to widespread misuse of the term Citrine Topaz and has been used to imitate Topaz. Much of the golden colored or brownish quartz being sold as Topaz is actually heat-treated amethyst. The best material is found in Brazil, Spain, USA and Russia.

Citrine helps digestion and aids in mental and intellectual functions. Increases self-esteem and energy. Balances and dissipates negative energy.

Mineral Crystal Structure Hardness
Quartz Trigonal 7.0

The name is given to the microcrystalline varieties of quartz that form concrete deposits. Hence it is a type of quartz which contains various inclusions that can be a material of gem significance. It includes agate, chrysoprase, carnelian, jasper, bloodstone and onyx. Most of the chalcedonies are cut as cabochons or polished slabs. The most common colors are blue, red, green, brownish yellow and black. It is found in abundance in Brazil, Uruguay, Mexico, China, South Africa, Germany, India, Sri Lanka and USA.

Chalcedony is a nurturing stone that promotes brotherhood and good will. It absorbs negative energy. It brings the mind, body, emotions and spirit into harmony. Chalcedony instills feelings of benevolence and generosity. It alleviates hostility and transforms melancholy into joy.

Mineral Crystal Structure Hardness
Quartz Trigonal 7.0

Garnets are a group of silicate minerals. The word garnet has been derived from Old French grenate, ("pomegranate red").

All natural garnets are complex silicates that differ in chemical composition, but have similar atomic structure. The major garnet species are Pyrope, usually blood red in color with a tinge of purple or brown. Almandine, is the most common red garnet. Garnet is found in USA, South Africa, India, Mexico, Brazil, Burma, Australia, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Zimbabwe, Tanzania and Argentina.

Garnet regenerates the body and stimulates the metabolism. Purifies the heart, lungs, blood and regenerates DNA. Garnet boosts the immune system and energy levels. Sharpens perceptions of oneself and others. Garnet removes inhibitions and taboos. It opens the heart and bestows self-confidence.

Mineral Crystal Structure Hardness
Complex silicate Cubic 6.5-7.5

Peridot is the name given to gem-quality specimens of the mineral Olivine. Peridot, pronounced with or without the "t", is also the gemstone associated with the zodiac sign Libra. The word peridot is believed to be derived from the Arabic word faridat, meaning gem, or from from the Old French word peritot, meaning unclear due to its inclusions and cloudy nature. It is a warm, soft, olive or yellowish green gem.

It has a distinctive oily and greasy luster because of the iron content. Good quality and large size peridot crystals are very rare.

Fine peridots of pleasing color come from Arizona (USA). It is also found in Brazil, Australia, Czechoslovakia, Norway, Egypt, Burma, China and Mexico.

Peridot is recommended for insomnia, digestive problems and to stimulate the mind. Some say peridot has the power to drive away evil spirits, intensified when the stone is set in gold. And it's also said to strengthen the power of any medicine drunk from peridot goblets.

Mineral Crystal Structure Hardness
Olivine Orthorhombic 6.5

Iolite is also called Cordierite . It was known as water sapphire in the past because of its similarity to blue sapphire when cut. It comes in light blue, violet blue, sapphire blue and colorless shades. Gems are usually cut so only the blue color is seen, but a stone viewed from the side will appear grey .

It is found in Sri Lanka, India, Burma, USA, Tanzania, Namibia, Norway, Finland and Germany.

Iolite is a vision stone. It clears thought forms, opening intuition. Aids in understanding and releasing the causes of addiction. Helps you to express your true self, free from the expectations of others. Iolite releases discord within relationships. It encourages taking responsibility for yourself, overcoming codependency within your partnership.

Mineral Crystal Structure Hardness
Cordierite Orthorhombic 7.0

Pearls come under organic gems. The English word pearl comes from the French perle, originally from the Latin perna meaning leg, after the ham- or mutton leg-shaped bivalve. Real pearls are naturally formed in shellfish-especially oysters and mussels-as a natural defense against an irritant such as a piece of grit. The layers of nacre (calcium carbonate) are secreted around the irritant and gradually build up to form the solid pearl. In case of cultured pearls, an irritant is introduced by man into mollusk which initiates the formation of cultured pearl. In a nucleated cultured pearl, a small bead is used as a nucleus upon which the layers of nacre are secreted. Cultured pearls are harvested in fresh water or sea water. Sea water pearls are formed in oysters and fresh water pearls in mussels.

They come in different shapes such as baroque, round, button, oval, pear and egg and in different shades such as white, white with some color, brown and black. The shape and color depends on the type of mollusks and the water.

Natural pearls are harvested from the persian gulf, gulf of manaar and the red sea. The coast of Polynesia and Australia produce mainly cultured pearls. Both fresh water and sea water pearls are cultivated in China and Japan. Fresh water pearls also come from India, Scotland, France, Germany and USA.

Pearl signifies faith, charity and innocence. It enhances personal integrity and helps to provide a focus to ones attention. Pearl symbolises purity and is known as a "stone of sincerity". It brings truth to situations and loyalty to a "cause". Inhibits boisterous behaviour.

Mineral Crystal Structure Hardness
Calcium Carbonate, Conchiolin, Water Orthorhombic



The mineral beryl is a beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate mineral. The hexagonal crystals of beryl may be very small or range to several meters in size. Pure beryl is colorless, but it is frequently tinted by impurities; possible colors are green, blue, yellow, red, and white. The name beryl is derived (via Latin: beryllus, Old French: beryl, and Middle English: beril) from Greek "beryllos" which referred to a "precious blue-green color-of-sea-water stone". Beryl is found in Europe, Brazil, Colombia, Madagascar, Mozambique, South Africa, the United States, and Zambia.

Beryl was used to ward off demons and evil spirits. Beryl is said to protect travelers from danger and to treat disorders of the heart and spine. Other legends about beryl indicate it was used to promote cheerfulness and marital love, to retard laziness, and maintain youthfulness. Golden beryl is said to make one sympathetic and increase sincerity.

Mineral Crystal Structure Hardness
Silicate Hexagonal



Blue Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminum and fluorine. The name "topaz" is derived (via Old French: Topace and Latin: Topazus) from the Greek (Topazios), the Greek island of St. John's in the Red Sea. It is the state gemstone of the US state of Texas. Naturally occurring blue topaz is quite rare. Typically, colorless, gray or pale yellow and blue material is heat treated and irradiated to produce a more desired darker blue. Mined primarily in Sri Lanka, Germany, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States.

Blue Topaz brings truth and wisdom. It aids in clear communication. Blue Topaz helps in bringing body, mind and spirit into union. It assists in recognizing where you have strayed from your own truth. Topaz is particularly good for artists. It gives one access to their artistic creativity, and increases one's appreciation of beauty.

Mineral Crystal Structure Hardness
Silicate Orthorhombic dipyramidal 8

Cornelian (also spelled carnelian ) is a brownish-red mineral which is commonly used as a semi-precious gemstone. Carnelian is a variety of the silica mineral chalcedony colored by impurities of iron oxide. The color can vary greatly, ranging from pale orange to an intense almost-black coloration. The word cornelian comes from the Mediaeval Latin corneolus, itself derived from the Latin word cornum, the cornel cherry, whose translucent red fruits resemble the stone. The largest carnelian occurrence is in Australia, Brazil, Madagascar, Russia, South Africa, and the USA.

Cornelian is a stabilizing stone, Cornelian restores vitality and motivation, and stimulates creativity. It gives courage, promotes positive life choices, dispels apathy and motivates for success. Cornelian is useful for overcoming abuse of any kind. It helps in trusting yourself and your perceptions. It overcomes negative conditioning and encourages steadfastness.

Mineral Crystal Structure Hardness
Silica Trigonal 6-7

Green Quartz or Prasiolite, or vermarine is a green form of quartz, a silicate mineral. The name is derived from Greek prason meaning "leek" and lithos meaning "stone". This means that "prasiolite" literally means "garlic green-colored stone". Green Quartz gemstones are found in varying shades of green, greenish yellow and yellowish greenIt is mined in Brazil, Arizona, along the California-Nevada border and in Zimbabwe.

Green Quartz or Prasiolite variety, opens and stabilize the heart chakra. It promotes an intuitive capability which is coupled with love. Prasiolite is a stone of tranformative energies. It transmutes negative energy into positive without releasing it to the atmosphere. Prasiolite inspires creativity, attracting success, prosperity and abundance.

Mineral Crystal Structure Hardness
Oxide Hexagonal 7

Kunzite is a pink to lilac colored gemstone, a variety of spodumene with the color coming from minor to trace amounts of manganese.Kunzite was named after George Frederick Kunz since newly discovered gemstones are usually given the name of their discoverer or patron, this new pale pink discovery was called 'kunzite'. It has been found in Brazil, USA,Canada, CIS, Mexico, Sweden, Western Australia, Afghanistan and Pakistan.

Kunzite is said to enhance a person's capacity for devotion and understanding and to bestow inner peace and joie de vivre on its wearer. And since it is also said to activate the mind and liberate us from worry and anxiety, it is an excellent gemstone for those suffering from strain or exam nerves.

Mineral Crystal Structure Hardness
Silicate Monoclinic 6.5-7

Kyanite, whose name derives from the Greek word kuanos sometimes referred to as "kyanos" meaning deep blue, is a typically blue silicate mineral. The world's largest producer of kyanite by far is the US. It can be found in a number of states including California, Georgia, Nevada, Virginia, and North and South Carolina.

Kyanite has a calming effect on the whole being, bringing tranquility. It encourages psychic abilities and communication on all levels. It drives away anger, frustration, confusion and stress and helps to provide a capacity for linear and logical thought. Kyanite provides a stimulating energy, encouraging perseverance in and support of activities and situations which would normally reduce one's strength.

Mineral Crystal Structure Hardness
Silicate Triclinic pinacoidal 4.5-5

Turquoise is an opaque, blue-to-green mineral that is a hydrous phosphate of copper and aluminum. The word Turquoise is derived from an Old French word for "Turkish", because the mineral was first brought to Europe from Turkey, from the mines in the historical Khorasan Province of Iran.

Turquoise aids in the absorption of nutrients, enhances the immune system, stimulates the regeneration of tissue, and heals the whole body. It contains anti-inflammatory and detoxifying effects, and alleviates cramps and pain. Turquoise purifies lungs, soothes and clears sore throats, and heals the eyes, including cataracts. It neutralizes overacidity, benefits rheumatism, gout, stomach problems, and viral infections.

Mineral Crystal Structure Hardness
Phosphate Triclinic 5-7

Lemon Quartz is a mineral is made of silicon dioxide. Whilst the Quartz part of its name is derived from the Greek word for ice "krustallos", the Lemon prefix is derived from a citron fruit yellow in color just like a lemon.. Lemon quartz is most commonly mined in Brazil, but there are also mines in Africa, Canada, the United States and Europe.

Celebrated as the happiness stone, Lemon Quartz purifies negative thoughts and emotions, and dissolves depression. Amplifies positive feelings and ideas, to enhance clarity and communication. Grants tolerance and forgiveness to the wearer. Excellent for harmonizing and balancing, thus Lemon Quartz is extremely beneficial for meditation and creative visualization.

Mineral Crystal Structure Hardness
Silicon Dioxide Hexagonal 7

Prehnite is a phyllosilicate of calcium and aluminum. Prehnite derives its name from Colonel von Prehn, who discovered the gemstone in South Africa in 1788. Prehnite occurs in Canada; Paterson, New Jersey, Farmington, Connecticut; and Westfield, Massachusetts, USA; South Africa.

Prehnite is a stone of unconditional love. It is said to connect to the archangel Raphael. Prehnite enhances inner knowledge, showing the path forward to spiritual growth through attunement to divine energy. Prehnite connects the will and the heart. In so doing one's actions attain the highest good.

Mineral Crystal Structure Hardness
Silicate Orthorhombic 6 - 6.5

Rose quartz is a type of quartz that exhibits a pale pink to rose red hue. Whilst the Quartz part of its name is derived from the Greek word for ice "krustallos", the Rose prefix is derived from the flower rose. The color is usually considered as due to trace amounts of titanium, iron, or manganese in the massive material.

Rose quartz is known as the love stone. It helps the user feel a strong sense of self-worth, therefore being worth love. Rose quartz is the stone of universal love. It is also the stone of love in marriage. When worn in jewelry the wearer feels a sense of self-worth. It is said washing the face in water charged by rose quartz will help fade wrinkles and keep the skin young.

Mineral Crystal Structure Hardness
Silicon Dioxide Trigonal 7

Aventurine is a form of quartz, characterised by its translucency and the presence of platy mineral inclusions that give a shimmering or glistening effect termedaventurescence. The name aventurine derives from the Italian "a ventura" meaning "by chance". This was an allusion to the lucky discovery of aventurine glass or goldstone at some point in the 18th century. The most common colour of aventurine is green. The majority of green and blue-green aventurine originates in India (particularly in the vicinity ofMysore and Madras) where it is employed by prolific artisans. Creamy white, gray and orange material is found in Chile, Spain and Russia.

Aventurine is a stone of prosperity. It reinforces leadership qualities and decisiveness. Promotes compassion and empathy. Encourages perseverance. Aventurine relieves stammers and severe neuroses. It stabilizes one's state of mind, stimulates perception and enhances creativity. Aids in seeing alternatives and possibilities. Calms anger and irritation. Promotes feelings of well-being. Aventurine balances male-female energy. It encourages regeneration of the heart. Protects against environmental pollution.

Mineral Crystal Structure Hardness




Hessonite or Cinnamon Stone is a variety of grossular. The name is from the Greekhessen, inferior, in allusion to its lower hardness and density than most other garnet species varieties. Hessonite comes chiefly from Sri Lanka and India where it is found generally in placer deposits, though its occurrence in its native matrix is not unknown. It is also found in Brazil and California.

Wearing a good hessonite brings wealth, success, position, prestige, happiness, prosperity, good children, praise, fame, and health. It protects against rivalries and enemies. It helps to give good health and appetite, rids the mind of bad thoughts, and gives mental peace. It helps to increase one's social status, and brings one respect from others.

Mineral Crystal Structure Hardness




Chrysoprase, chrysophrase or chrysoprasus is a gemstone variety of chalcedony (acryptocrystalline form of silica) that contains small quantities of nickel. The word chrysoprase comes from the Greek chrysos meaning 'gold' and prasinon, meaning 'green'. This stone has some very interesting stories attached to it. According to a story, a person who was to be punished to death by hanging or beheading could escape his fate by placing this stone in his mouth.The best known sources of chrysoprase are Queensland, Western Australia, Germany,Poland, Russia, Arizona, California, and Brazil.

Chrysoprase has been credited with a number of other powers, such as banishing greed, selfishness, carelessness, stirring the imagination, calming irritability and the pains of gout. It has been said to create happiness, enterprise, prudence adaptability, versatility, action, progress and adventure. Told to protect from evil dreams and demons, to bring success in new enterprises, and to make the wearer more cheerful.

Mineral Crystal Structure Hardness




Smoky or Smokey quartz is a brown to black variety of quartz. The name is obviously derived from its brown to gray color. Like other quartz gems, it is a silicon dioxide crystal. The smoky color results from free silicon, formed from the silicon dioxide by natural irradiation. Smokey Quartz is found in USA, Ukraine, Norway, Switzerland, Romania, Namibia, Morocco, Malawi, Italy, Greece, Germany, China and Austria.

Smokey Quartz gently neutralizes negative vibrations and is detoxifying on all levels, prompting elimination of the digestive system and protecting against radiation and electromagnetic smog. Smokey Quartz disperses fear, lifts depression and negativity. It brings emotional calmness, relieving stress and anxiety.

Mineral Crystal Structure Hardness
Silicon Dioxide




Tanzanite is the blue/purple variety of the mineral zoisite. Officially called "blue zoisite" it was marketed as tanzanite by Tiffany & Co., who wanted to capitalize on the rarity of the gem, then only found in Tanzania. Most tanzanite deposits are found in the Merelani Hills and surrounding areas, with a few, almost insignificant finds, in nearby Kenya.

Tanzanite changes colors when it is viewed from different directions. This shifting of colors has been said to facilitate raising consciousness. The gemstone opens an awareness of the comparison between how one lives and how one could choose to live more consciously. It is a stone for highly developed beings who have not yet recognized their strength and fearfully close their hearts to it. This creates trust and we gradually open ourselves to further possibilities.

Mineral Crystal Structure Hardness